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Dr. Susanna Way Dodds – References


Carrington, Hereward. (1954). The History of Natural Hygiene. Health Research. 998 Pages. 

  • Natural Hygiene (NH) is an alternative medicine originating from the Nature Cure movement. It is a form of vitalism that considers self-healing the best and only cure for disease, favors fasting as restorative, and favors dietary and other lifestyle measures as preventative. It is generally against medical treatment, except surgery in certain situations, such as for broken bones and to “remove a deadly secondary cause.” The movement originated with Isaac Jennings, who began formulating his ideas about Natural Hygiene after practicing traditional medicine for 20 years. The founder of Natural Hygiene, Herbert Shelton, became a prominent writer on the topic.

Clevenger, Martha R. “From Lay Practitioner to Doctor of Medicine: Woman Physicians in St. Louis, 1860-1920.” Bernard Becker Medical Library Digital Collection, Accessed 11 Mar. 2024.

Harris, Barbara J. (1978). Beyond her Sphere: Women and the Professions in American History. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

Hodgen, John. (1900). One Hundred Years of Medicine and Surgery in Missouri. St. Louis: St. Louis Star.

Hunt, Marion. “Women and Childsaving: St. Louis Children’s Hospital 1879-1979.” Bernard Becker Medical Library Digital Collection, Accessed 11 Mar. 2024.

Jacobi, Mary Putnam. (1882). Shall Women Practice Medicine?. [New York]: [publisher not identified].

Johnson, Anne. (1914). Notable Women of St. Louis, 1914. St. Louis, Woodward.

Kaufman, Martin. (1971). Homeopathy in America: the Rise and Fall of a Medical Heresy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Ludmerer, Kenneth. (1985). Learning to Heal: the Development of American Medical Education. New York: Basic Books. Learning to Heal: the Development of American Medical Education. New York: Basic Books.

“Directory of Physicians, Dentists and Druggists of Missouri, 1889, Including Cities and Towns in the State of Kansas (St. Louis, Mo.: G. Gonser & Co., 1889).” Missouri Historical Society, Accessed 11 Mar. 2024.

Morantz, Regina Markell. “Making Women Modern: Middle-Class Women and Health Reform in 19th Century America.” Journal of Social History, vol. 10, no. 4, 1977, pp. 490–507. JSTOR, Accessed 11 Mar. 2024.

Soule, Samuel. (1979). Medicine in St. Louis Medical Schools in the Nineteenth Century. Council of the St. Louis Medical Society.

Starr, Paul. (1982). The Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books.

Van Hoosen, Bertha. (1980). Petticoat Surgeon. Part of Pioneering the Upper Midwest: Books from Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, CA. 1820 to 1910 (340).

  • This is the autobiography of a distinguished Michigan native who helped to establish a place for women in medicine. Bertha Van Hoosen was born in 1863 to a Dutch Canadian father and a third-generation Michigan mother on a farm near the small town of Rochester. The first chapters of Petticoat Surgeon are full of insights into educational opportunities and farm life in late nineteenth-century Michigan. After college and medical school at the University of Michigan, Van Hoosen spent the early part of her career at the Women’s Hospital in Detroit, the Kalamazoo State Hospital, and the New England Hospital for Women and Children, ultimately settling in Chicago to develop her practice in obstetrics and gynecology. Committed to teaching medicine and delivering medical service to the poor, Van Hoosen taught anatomy and embryology at the Northwestern University Women’s Medical School and worked at the Columbia Dispensary. She eventually became an eminent physician, serving as the Chief of Staff of the Women and Children’s Hospital and as a member of Cook County Hospital’s gynecological staff. She ran weekly surgical clinics at the University of Illinois College of Medicine and served as Head and Professor of Obstetrics at Loyola University. The last few chapters of Petticoat Surgeon describe her encounters with physicians in Europe and Asia. Her autobiography also highlights many medical issues debated at the turn of the century: care for unwed mothers, anesthesia for childbirth, discrimination against female doctors, and sex education in public schools. Van Hoosen was a strong advocate of sex education and worked with the Chicago Woman’s Club to include it in the city’s public school curriculum.

Walsh, Mary Roth. (1977). “Doctors Wanted, No Women Need Apply”: Sexual Barriers in the Medical Profession, 1835-1975. New Haven: Yale University Press.

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